Pathophysiology of Anemia-Classification, Types of Anemia
Definition of Anemia –
Anemia is a Blood Disorder, Anemia may be defined as a reduction below normal limits of total circulation red cell-mass. This value is not easily measured , there fore, Anemia has been defined as reduction below normal in the volume of the packed red cells or reduction in the hemoglobin concentration of the blood is called Anemia.
Anemia Value –
- In Women – 12.0 to 15.0 gm/dl
- In Men 13.6 to 17.2 gm/dl
Classification of Anemia –
- Aplastic Anemia
- Haemolytic Anemia
- Megaloblastic Anemia
- Pernicious Anemia
- Iron Deficiency Anemia
Pathophysiology Of Anemia –
Ventricular dysfunction Reduced Arterial Flow
Renal Blood Flow RAAS Activation (Decreased) ⇓ Proinflammatory Cytokine activation
Pro Tubule NA reabsorption Increase Decrease of Marrow erythropiesis Iron Store ⇓
⇓ Iron Store available Decrease
Plasma Volume Hemodilution Anemia Increase RBS Volume Decrase
Aplastic Anemia – Is a disorder of pluripotent stem cells that leads to bone marrow failure. The disorder features are hypocellular bone marrow and pancytopenia.
- Chemical agents
- Ionizing Radiations
- Drugs – Anti Convulsants, NSAIDS
Clinical Features –
- The bone marrow is hypocellular.
- Bone marrow is largely composed of narrow space populated by fact cells and fibrous strome.
- Mild progressive weakness and fatigue.
Haemolytic Anemia – Is characterized by following features shortening of the normal red cell life span. destruction of red cells.
Types Of Haemolytic Anemia –
- Hereditary Spherocytosis
- Sickel Cell Anemia
Megaloblastic Anemia – It constitute a diverse group of entities having in common impairs DNA synthesis and distinctive morphological changes in RBS.
Pernicious Anemia – It is an important causes of Vitamine B12 deficiency. The features that sets pernicious anemia apart from the other vitamins B12 deficiency, megaloblastic Anemia is the causes of the Vitamins B12.
Iron Deficiency Anemia – Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder in the world. The prevalance of iron deficiency anemia is higher in the development countries. Colour of skin become pale. Hypoxia which leads to weakness and tiredness.