Cell Injury – Types Causes Hypoxia (Ischaemia) Agents
Cell Injury –
Cell injury is defined as encountered a variety of stresses, due to change of internal as well external environment cause Cell Injury. In our body Cell injury cause many of types. Like any external – Damages, Accidents, Burns, Acid infection, Disease cause got Infection. In Internal – Disease, dis balance of antigens and antibody cause Cell Injury.
The response of Cell Injury is depends on two basic variables like –
- Types of Cell and Tissues involved
- Duration and types of Injury
Types of Cell Injury –
Reversible Cell Injury – Cell Injury recovered back id the stress in mild to moderate is called.
Irreversible Cell Injury – Stress is very sever and persistent, cell may diet. – Nacrosis and Apoptosis
Cellular Adaptation – Some time cell adapt the changes when increased functional demand and revert back to normal state if stress remove.
Causes of Cell Injury –
In Cell Injury cause reversible and Irreversible cell injury is both are same. They cause Cell Injury in higher level and lower level. They cause produce irritation and infection. If injury is sufficient severity, the cell reach a point of no return and irreversible injury culminating in cell death will occurs.
- Hypoxia and Ischemia
- Physical agents
- Immunological agents
- Chemical / drugs agents
- Microbial agents
- Psychological agents
- Nutritional imbalance
- Genetic derangement
Hypoxia / Ischemia –
This is most important cause of Cell Injury and Cell Death. They are different for Ischemia. Which is loss of blood flow to and there fore oxygenation of the tissue.
Physical Agents –
many of Physical Agents which responsible for Cell Injury include trauma, Heat, Cold, changes in environment pressure and radiation, due to UV light damage to skin.
Immunological agents –
immune system are serves as one of defense system for our body is called biological agents, but immune reaction may also cause cell injury such as Hypersensitivity reaction.
Chemical agents and Drugs –
many of Chemical agents and Drugs are responsible for Cell Injury like – Glucose or salt in hyper tonic concentration. Oxygen at high concentration. Poisons such mercuric, cyanide. Air Pollutants, Insecticides and Herbicides, Industrial hazards, Social stimuli, Alcohols and narcotic drugs, Therapeutic drugs.
Microbial agents –
Many of Microbial agents also cause of Cell Injury like – Viruses, Metazoa, Bacteria, Rickettsia, Protozoa.
Psychological Factors –
Cardiovascular disease, Alcoholism, Smoking Drug addiction, Peptic Ulcer, Lung Cancer.
Nutritional imbalance –
Absolute deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients may leads to cell injury.
Genetic Factors –
Genetic injury is can results of defects as gross as the congenital malformation associated with down syndrome or single Amino acid substitution in hemoglobin as seen sickle cell anaemia